Metronidazole neurotoxicity

Neurotoxicity is a recognised adverse effect of metronidazole, an antimicrobial used in cats and dogs to treat a variety of conditions. By doing this module you will:

  • Be aware of how metronidazole neurotoxicity can present in practice.

  • Understand what is known about the relationship between metronidazole dose and neurotoxicity.

  • Be aware of how to reduce the risk of neurotoxicity developing.

  • Know what you can do if it presents in practice.

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Parasiticide Guide
  • includes all UK authorised parasiticides for cats dogs, ferrets and rabbits

  • search by parasite/disease, active ingredient(s), brand, species, formulation

  • updated every 3 months

  • find the product you need

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Which NSAID

By doing this module you will:

  • know what an NSAID is

  • understand the clinical pharmacology of NSAIDs

  • gain a broad understanding of the range of licensed uses of the different NSAIDs 

  • understand what is known about the comparative efficacy and safety of NSAIDs 

  • be able to make a rational choice.

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Imported pets

By doing this module you will:

  • be aware of the parasitic diseases that may be found in an imported pet

  • know what clinical signs to look out for

  • be aware of the effective treatments, and how to get them

  • find out where to get further information and specialist advice.

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Handling veterinary medicines and pregnancy

By doing this module you will:

  • understand the principles of reproductive toxicity;

  • understand how data on the harmful effects of medicines are generated;

  • be aware of the evidence on reproductive harm in veterinary practice;

  • understand what practical measures to take to avoid harm;

  • know where to find helpful information on medicines and pregnancy.

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Leptospira vaccines

By doing this module you will:

  • understand the naming system for Leptospira and the relevance to vaccination;

  • understand what is known about the types of Leptospira affecting dogs in the UK;

  • understand the features of the different vaccines and how they compare;

  • be aware of what is known about the safety of the vaccines';

  • be able to make a rational choice.

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Amantadine in the management of chronic pain in dogs and cats

By doing this module you will:

  • Understand the pharmacology of amantadine and the rationale for using it in chronic pain.
  • Be aware of the published evidence on the use of amantadine in dogs and cats.
  • Find out what is known about the adverse effects of amantadine. 
  • Know the potential role of amantadine in the management of chronic pain and how to monitor its effects.
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Taking pets abroad

By doing this module you will:

  • know the main parasite risks for pets visiting mainland Europe;

  • know where to find information about parasite distribution;

  • understand the drug and non-drug measures for reducing risk of infection

  • be able to make a rational choice of parasiticide products using the comprehensive table of products.

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Prescribing veterinary specials

When a small animal needs a drug treatment, there is usually a licensed (authorised) medicine available, although it might be licensed for other species or indications. However, there are some circumstances when there is no suitable licensed product to fulfil a clinical need. To solve such a problem, it might be possible to use an unlicensed ‘special’ formulation. Specials are unlike licensed medicines because they are not assessed for safety or efficacy by a regulatory body. So vets must be satisfied there is sufficient evidence or experience to demonstrate safety and efficacy. Here we outline the facts and practical information relevant to prescribing special formulations.

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What pet owners need to know about medicines

Much of an animal’s medical treatment will be administered by the owner at home. To do this safely and effectively, owners need information about why and how to use the treatments. This module discusses what sort of information owners need, what is required by law, what is available, and how it can be provided in the veterinary practice. 

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Lipid emulsion in the management of toxicity

Intravenous lipid emulsion is increasingly being used as an adjunct in the management of toxicity caused by lipophilic drugs that are cardiotoxic (e.g. bupivacaine) or neurotoxic (e.g. permethrin). The Veterinary Poisons Information Service recommends that intravenous lipid emulsion be considered for any animal at risk of serious toxicity after exposure to a lipophilic compound (VPIS 2017). This module summarises what is known about this treatment, the uncertainties, and the practical aspects of using it. 

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Lidocaine/prilocaine topical anaesthetic cream in small animals

Lidocaine (25mg/g) plus prilocaine (25mg/g) cream is a topical anaesthetic licensed for use in humans but not in animals. However, it is used in veterinary practice – for example, during venepuncture at the jugular or cephalic vein for blood sampling, especially in cats, or the ear veins in rabbits; and when inserting an intravenous cannula preoperatively in cats, dogs and rabbits. This module summarises the published evidence on the efficacy and safety of lidocaine/prilocaine cream in small animals, gives practical guidance on its use, and highlights the gaps in the evidence.

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Lokivetmab – a new treatment for canine atopic dermatitis

Why do this module?

Lokivetmab is a new treatment for reducing the clinical signs of atopic dermatitis in dogs. It is also a new type of medicine (a monoclonal antibody) for the treatment of animals in the UK. This module explains about monoclonal antibodies, summarises what is known about the efficacy and safety of lokivetmab in the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis, and discusses where it might fit in the management of atopic dermatitis. 

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Stem cell therapy for cats and dogs - not what you might expect.

When we last reviewed ‘stem cell’ therapy in 2014 there was only one small published clinical trial (in dogs with osteoarthritis) and this did not show a clear benefit. Now some veterinary practices offer ‘stem cell’ therapy for cats and dogs for the treatment of a wide range of conditions, including arthritis, hip dysplasia, tendinopathy, skin disease and inflammatory bowel disease. But how much has the evidence moved on? This module explains the forms of therapy available, why ‘stem cell’ therapy is now considered a misnomer, how the therapy is regulated, and what is known about its efficacy and safety in cats and dogs.

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Drug interactions: understanding, predicting and managing them

There are many situations in which you might use several medicines at the same time in a companion animal – for example, to treat chronic diseases or multiple conditions in older animals; to achieve broad parasite protection; in anaesthetic protocols; and when anaesthetising animals on long-term drug treatment. 

This module covers: the principles of interactions and their potential consequences; interactions with herbal medicines and nutraceuticals; where to find information about interactions and what to do with it; and practical tips on predicting, avoiding and managing drug interactions.

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Avoiding problems when stopping systemic glucocorticoid therapy

Glucocorticoids are widely used and are an important part of the veterinary therapeutic armoury. However, they cause well-known unwanted effects, including suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), which can lead to problems when the treatment is stopped.This module outlines the rationale and evidence on steroid withdrawal in cats and dogs and includes an example of a withdrawal protocol. It was prompted by a query from a small-animal vet, who asked if there is a standard protocol for withdrawing steroid therapy.

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Quick-reference prescribing information - what is there?

Where's the best place to find information on doses, interactions, use in pregnancy and so on, at the time of prescribing? Do you know the difference between SPCs and data sheets? Where can you find reliable information on unlicensed medicines? Our new module reviews quick-reference prescribing information sources. We've compared the different sources - paper and online - looking at the pros and cons, whether the information is reliable, the costs, and which to use when you need a particular type of information. It's practical and will help you to know if you're using the most up-to-date resources.

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Oily injections what you need to know to keep safe

Some vaccines used in veterinary medicine contain mineral oil as an adjuvant. Most are vaccines for use in food production animals, but there are a few for use in companion animals. Self-injection can result in serious harm from the mineral oil content and so it is important to know which those products are. This module aims to raise awareness of the potential hazard and what to do to avoid serious harm.

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