Posts in dogs
Parasiticide Guide
  • includes all UK authorised parasiticides for cats dogs, ferrets and rabbits

  • search by parasite/disease, active ingredient(s), brand, species, formulation

  • updated every 3 months

  • find the product you need

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CBD for canine arthritis. What do we know?

It is clear from online forum discussions among dog owners that there is interest in the perceived benefits of cannabidiol (CBD). Some dog owners either already give CBD to their dogs, or are interested in trying it, to relieve arthritis pain. Consequently veterinary professionals may be asked for advice about CBD or be asked to prescribe it. By doing this module you will:

  • understand what is known about the physiological effects of CBD in dogs;

  • know the legal status of CBD products, including whether they can be prescribed;

  • be aware of the published evidence on the clinical efficacy of CBD in dogs with osteoarthritis; 

  • be aware of what is known about the safety of CBD in dogs.

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Grapiprant – a new drug for treating osteoarthritis in dogs

By doing this module you will:

  • understand the pharmacology of grapiprant;

  • know the clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of grapiprant;

  • be aware of what is known about how grapiprant compares with NSAIDs;

  • understand what is meant by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis in clinical trials result analysis;

  • understand what is meant by the number needed to treat and its relevance to clinical practice.

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Metronidazole neurotoxicity

Neurotoxicity is a recognised adverse effect of metronidazole, an antimicrobial used in cats and dogs to treat a variety of conditions. By doing this module you will:

  • Be aware of how metronidazole neurotoxicity can present in practice.

  • Understand what is known about the relationship between metronidazole dose and neurotoxicity.

  • Be aware of how to reduce the risk of neurotoxicity developing.

  • Know what you can do if it presents in practice.

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Which NSAID

By doing this module you will:

  • know what an NSAID is

  • understand the clinical pharmacology of NSAIDs

  • gain a broad understanding of the range of licensed uses of the different NSAIDs 

  • understand what is known about the comparative efficacy and safety of NSAIDs 

  • be able to make a rational choice.

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Imported pets

By doing this module you will:

  • be aware of the parasitic diseases that may be found in an imported pet

  • know what clinical signs to look out for

  • be aware of the effective treatments, and how to get them

  • find out where to get further information and specialist advice.

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Tramadol for pain relief in dogs: what's its place? (Updated)

By doing this module you will:

  • understand the pharmacology of tramadol

  • know the evidence on its efficacy in acute and chronic pain

  • be aware of the adverse effects

  • know the place of tramadol in the management of pain in dogs.

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Leptospira vaccines

By doing this module you will:

  • understand the naming system for Leptospira and the relevance to vaccination;

  • understand what is known about the types of Leptospira affecting dogs in the UK;

  • understand the features of the different vaccines and how they compare;

  • be aware of what is known about the safety of the vaccines';

  • be able to make a rational choice.

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Amantadine in the management of chronic pain in dogs and cats

By doing this module you will:

  • Understand the pharmacology of amantadine and the rationale for using it in chronic pain.
  • Be aware of the published evidence on the use of amantadine in dogs and cats.
  • Find out what is known about the adverse effects of amantadine. 
  • Know the potential role of amantadine in the management of chronic pain and how to monitor its effects.
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Taking pets abroad

By doing this module you will:

  • know the main parasite risks for pets visiting mainland Europe;

  • know where to find information about parasite distribution;

  • understand the drug and non-drug measures for reducing risk of infection

  • be able to make a rational choice of parasiticide products using the comprehensive table of products.

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Lipid emulsion in the management of toxicity

Intravenous lipid emulsion is increasingly being used as an adjunct in the management of toxicity caused by lipophilic drugs that are cardiotoxic (e.g. bupivacaine) or neurotoxic (e.g. permethrin). The Veterinary Poisons Information Service recommends that intravenous lipid emulsion be considered for any animal at risk of serious toxicity after exposure to a lipophilic compound (VPIS 2017). This module summarises what is known about this treatment, the uncertainties, and the practical aspects of using it. 

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Lidocaine/prilocaine topical anaesthetic cream in small animals

Lidocaine (25mg/g) plus prilocaine (25mg/g) cream is a topical anaesthetic licensed for use in humans but not in animals. However, it is used in veterinary practice – for example, during venepuncture at the jugular or cephalic vein for blood sampling, especially in cats, or the ear veins in rabbits; and when inserting an intravenous cannula preoperatively in cats, dogs and rabbits. This module summarises the published evidence on the efficacy and safety of lidocaine/prilocaine cream in small animals, gives practical guidance on its use, and highlights the gaps in the evidence.

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Lokivetmab – a new treatment for canine atopic dermatitis

Why do this module?

Lokivetmab is a new treatment for reducing the clinical signs of atopic dermatitis in dogs. It is also a new type of medicine (a monoclonal antibody) for the treatment of animals in the UK. This module explains about monoclonal antibodies, summarises what is known about the efficacy and safety of lokivetmab in the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis, and discusses where it might fit in the management of atopic dermatitis. 

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Stem cell therapy for cats and dogs - not what you might expect.

When we last reviewed ‘stem cell’ therapy in 2014 there was only one small published clinical trial (in dogs with osteoarthritis) and this did not show a clear benefit. Now some veterinary practices offer ‘stem cell’ therapy for cats and dogs for the treatment of a wide range of conditions, including arthritis, hip dysplasia, tendinopathy, skin disease and inflammatory bowel disease. But how much has the evidence moved on? This module explains the forms of therapy available, why ‘stem cell’ therapy is now considered a misnomer, how the therapy is regulated, and what is known about its efficacy and safety in cats and dogs.

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Avoiding problems when stopping systemic glucocorticoid therapy

Glucocorticoids are widely used and are an important part of the veterinary therapeutic armoury. However, they cause well-known unwanted effects, including suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), which can lead to problems when the treatment is stopped.This module outlines the rationale and evidence on steroid withdrawal in cats and dogs and includes an example of a withdrawal protocol. It was prompted by a query from a small-animal vet, who asked if there is a standard protocol for withdrawing steroid therapy.

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Lungworm (Angiostrongylus vasorum) in dogs: reducing the risks

Angiostrongylus vasorum, one of the five main parasites affecting dogs in the UK, can cause severe illness and even death in infected dogs. This module provides answers to key questions about the biology, epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis and management of canine angiostrongylosis. It will enable veterinary professionals to discuss confidently the risks with clients and reach a fully informed decision about preventive therapy. 

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Fireworks: can alpha-casozepine help?

Noise aversion is common in pets. Management of noise aversion usually involves a combination of interventions, including behaviour therapy, pheromones, drugs and nutritional supplements. Alpha-casozepine (Zylkène capules) is one such supplement. This module looks at whether there is any evidence that alpha-casozepine is effective in helping cats and dogs with noise aversion.

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Which tick product?

Parasite specialists ESCCAP UK & Ireland strongly advise the use of a tick preventive product for dogs in areas where Babesia has been reported, to reduce the risk of disease  transmission, and they recommend using a product that either repels or rapidly kills ticks. This module explains what is meant by repellent and rapid killing effect and lists the products that meet these criteria.

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Antimicrobial ear products for dogs

Otitis externa is one of the most common canine disorders seen in primary care veterinary practice Most cases of acute otitis externa can be managed using topical therapy. This module reviews and compares the available antibacterial products for acute otitis externa, to help with choice of treatment in individual cases, or when creating a practice antimicrobial policy.

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Tea Tree Oil in companion animals

Tea tree oil is widely advocated as a home remedy for skin infections and for controlling flea infestations. Vets may therefore see animals that have been treated with tea tree oil, or owners might ask for advice about its use. This module sets out the evidence on the benefits and harms of tea tree oil in companion animals, and describes what can be done if tea tree oil has caused harm to a pet.

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